From Utoya to Paris: Anatomy of a Double Standard


Darryl Barthe I Society & Culture I Analysis I February 12th, 2015



The Oxford English dictionary defines hypocrisy as the practice of claiming to have higher standards or more noble beliefs than is the case. From Middle English: from Old French ypocrisie, via ecclesiastical Latin, from Greek hupokrisis 'acting of a theatrical part', from hupokrinesthai 'play a part, pretend', from hupo 'under' + krinein 'decide, judge'. Particularly relevant is the sense that the hypocrite is one who plays a role, who engages in pretense, who obscures their motives in theater and who intentionally misrepresents themselves in order to further some unspoken end.

If what a person says is inconsistent with what is understood of that person's character, context and material interest, there is no choice but to render that person's motives suspect. Questioning people's motives is always a daunting proposition, however, and this is particularly true when the people whose motives are called into question are powerful people. No one relishes being called a liar, after all, and this is especially true of liars. Yet, when one is incapable of shaking off the sense that they are being lied to, and when one's better sense tells them that they are being deceived, that one is better off following their intuition rather than playing into a gentlemen's game of "hide and seek," where compunctions against quarrelling prevents the sort of direct confrontation necessary to clear the smoke and cover the mirrors.

The purpose of this essay is to engage that distasteful practice of questioning motives. Specifically, in the case of the Charlie Hebdo massacre of January 7, 2015, and the public reaction to it in the West, there is much cause for critical engagement and examination. In the wake of the tragic events that unfolded that day, "je suis Charlie" became a rallying cry for those who proclaimed the inviolability of the right to free expression and for those who condemned the sort of primitive vengeance of Chérif and Saïd Kouachi, the men who murdered 12 people because they believed that that would make God happy.

As a result of their bloody fête, Chérif and Saïd Kouachi transcended their individual limitations, becoming symbols of a larger conflict of ideas. Certainly, the brothers fantasized about the prospect of becoming "martyrs" and, in the end, died in a hail of gunfire. [1] They were no longer men with specific circumstances and contexts, but rather were the latest faces of "radical Islamism." Prior to their deaths, the Kouachis had already thrown off their mortal coils to become physical embodiments of "jihad," a word meaning "struggle" but mistranslated into English as "holy war" and associated with the sort of religious-induced barbarism that westerners associate with their own Crusading history. To many in the West, particularly those who view Islam as "foreign" and "menacing," Chérif and Saïd Kouachi became representative of all Muslims: angry and fierce and ready to spill blood in the name of God. Theirs were murderous non-white faces, full of threat and peril, hostile to Christianity and to Christendom.

On January 11, 2015, more than 40 world leaders gathered in Paris to march for a block or so, flanked by armed guards on every side. Even now, it is unclear if they were marching in support of Free Expression or against "radical Islam," or for some other reason not clearly articulated. If France's Hollande is committed to free expression, then why is Le Mur, a film documenting the systematic and institutional abuse of autistic children in France censored? Germany's Merkel believes in the free and open exchange of ideas, yet Mein Kampf is still banned in Germany. Benjamin Netanyahu took a front-line position in a carefully constructed photo opportunity, arm in arm with the President of Mali, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita: the former presided over a genocidal campaign of violence in Gaza in July in 2014 wherein IDF soldiers killed foreign journalists reporting on the carnage visited on Gazans while the latter expelled French journalist Dorothee Thienot from Gao for reporting on the murder of Malian civilians by his security forces. [2] Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov was in attendance at the rally, despite the fact that his own government was content to unleash cossacks on members of the femme-punk outfit Pussy Riot for having the audacity to defy a ban on political protest at the Sochi games in 2014.[3] The Saudi Ambassador, Mohammed bin Ismail Al Al-Sheikh marched that day, despite the fact that in Saudi Arabia insulting Islam or the prophet Mohammed is a crime with penalties ranging from the lash to beheading, and despite the fact that his own government was responsible for arming separatists in Chechnya that are considered terrorists by Russia. [4]

The photo opportunity staged by world leaders was, in every way, eclipsed by much larger public demonstrations in Paris that day, although some news outlets attempted to portray the two events as connected. Reuters reported that "leaders including Muslim and Jewish statesmen linked arms to lead more than a million French citizens through Paris in an unprecedented march to pay tribute to victims of Islamist militant attacks....President Francois Hollande and leaders from Germany, Italy, Turkey, Britain as well as Israel and the Palestinian territories moved off from the central Place de la Republique ahead of a sea of French and other flags."[5] Unfortunately, wide angled images of the march of politicians tell a story of theatrical magic and trick photography, propaganda and the cynical construction of a disingenuous political narrative. [6]

As politicians acted out their parts in this drama, western media personalities took turns pointing out how the massacre in Paris was, ultimately, indicative of a deeper problem with Islam, and with Muslims in general. Billionaire Rupert Murdoch opined that although perhaps "most Moslems (were) peaceful, "until they recognize and destroy their growing jihadist cancer they must be held responsible" for the violence committed by people like the Kouachi brothers. Murdoch would later clarify his comments, claiming that while he "did not mean all Muslims responsible for Paris attack," he still maintained that the "Muslim community must debate and confront extremism."[7] Comedian Bill Maher, an outspoken critic of Islamic fundamentalism (and religion in general), acknowledged that while most Muslims would never execute an attack the way the Kouachi brothers did, he believed that "(h)undreds of millions of them support an attack like this. They applaud an attack like this." [8] Vanderbilt Professor Carol M. Swain in an editorial for The Tennessean declared that Islam "has absolutely nothing in common with Christianity, nor is it a worthy part of the brotherhood of man" and, moreover that it "is a dangerous set of beliefs totally incompatible with Western beliefs concerning freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of association." Swain went so far as to call for "monitoring" of "Islamic organizations."[9] Somali-born Dutch expatriate, Muslim apostate, and professional critic of Islam, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, dismissed those "trying to deny the relationship between violence and radical Islam" as well as the notion that the Paris shootings were "an attack by a mentally deranged, lone-wolf gunman," contributing to the narrative of the Kouachis as transcendent avatars of Islamic brutality and vengeance.[10]

Meanwhile, Muslims from every corner of the Earth did, in fact, articulate condemnation for the attacks, and in no uncertain terms, too. The Grande Mosquée de Paris issued a statement on January 7, 2015 stating " Le Conseil français du culte musulman et les musulmans de France condamnent avec la plus grande détermination l'attaque terroriste d'une exceptionnelle violence commise contre le journal Charlie Hebdo. "[11] The Union des Organisations Islamiques de France was similar in its condemnation: " Charlie Hebdo vient d'être l'objet d'une effroyable attaque. Il y a actuellement onze morts et quatre blessés graves. L'UOIF condamne de la manière la plus ferme cette attaque criminelle et ces horribles meurtres ."[12] The Muslim Council of Britain was unambiguous in its condemnation, observing that "(t)hose who have killed in the name of our religion today claim to be avenging the insults made against Prophet Muhammad, upon whom be peace. But nothing is more immoral, offensive and insulting against our beloved Prophet than such a callous act of murder."[13] The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) issued a statement vilifying the attacks, stating that "(w)e strongly condemn this brutal and cowardly attack and reiterate our repudiation of any such assault on freedom of speech, even speech that mocks faiths and religious figures." [14] The Arab League, an organization representing 22 Arab nations, was not quite as forceful as western Islamic organizations but still managed a clear, concise, condemnation, declaring that "Arab League chief Nabil al-Arabi strongly condemns the terrorist attack on Charlie Hebdo newspaper in Paris."[15]

The Kouachi brothers were not allowed the privilege of individuality. Nevermind that these were two men from Paris' 19th arrondissement, a ghetto of African Muslims plagued by gang violence where the unemployment rate in 2008 was as high as 17.7%. Chérif Kouachi, who was arrested in 2005 while attempting to board a plane to Damascus en route to Iraq, seemed to his lawyers then to be a "fragile young kid with few real political ideas." Angelique Chrisafis, writing for The Guardian, reported that Chérif Kouachi "was abandoned very young," by his parents, "very clearly marginalized...very immature...fragile," and perhaps most interestingly, unable to even "differentiate between Catholicism and Islam." His brother, Saïd, was described as "more poised" and was married with children but both were undeniably forced to the outer edges of French society. The personal struggles of these men did not figure in to the dominant narrative, however. Rather than individuals, acting out of despair or frustration, they are represented as carbon-paper cut-outs of Muslim fury. Whatever particular psychological twists and turns that lay at the root of their decision to murder twelve people, the Kouachi brothers' became representatives of a larger Muslim menace to those who preferred to look for explanations for their savagery in the Koran rather than in the material conditions of "des enfants perdus de la République" who inhabit Paris' 19th arrondissement. [16]

The response, from the media as well as from world leaders, to the 2011 attack on the Worker's Youth League (Arbeidaranes Ungdomsfylking or, simply, AUF) summer camp in Oslo, Norway by right-wing mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik offers a perfect counterpoint to the reaction to the Charlie Hebdo massacre. Despite the differences in scale, ferocity and raw carnage, it is clear that there are two separate and unequal standards of outrage in play. These different standards speak volumes on the role that Islamophobia, racism and White Supremacy, and classism plays in the construction of media narratives in the West.

Brievik was the son of a nurse and a diplomat. As a child, he was shuttled from London to Paris to Oslo as a result of his parents' divorce. The Telegraph described his upbringing as "privileged" and Brievik himself as a "mummy's boy." Nevertheless, it is clear that Brievik came to despise both of his parents. He nursed a vicious resentment for his mother for the "super-liberal, matriarchal upbringing" that she provided him. His father, Jen Brievik, was distant and estranged from all four of his children, including Anders who maintained that he had had no contact with his father since he was 15 years old.[17]

In terms of sheer scale, there is little that Brievik's crimes have in common with the Kouachi brothers'. Brievik began his attack with a car bombing in central Oslo that targeted the office of the Prime Minister of Norway. Police described the attack as an "Oklahoma city-type" bombing, as Brievik had built his own explosives from fuel and fertilizer in the same fashion as right-wing mass murderer Timothy McVeigh. [18] Unlike McVeigh, however, Brievik was not content with bombing government buildings and, from central Oslo, proceeded to the island of Utøya where the Norwegian Labor Party annual summer camp was held. Once there, proceeded to gun down camp counselors and children indiscriminately. Brievik's shooting spree lasted for more than an hour before he finally surrendered to police. When the smoke finally cleared, Brievik had murdered 77 people: eight in Oslo and another 69 at Utøya, with 33 of those victims being under the age of 18. His two youngest victims were both 14 years old.[19]

Despite the fact that Brievik wrote a long, rambling, manifesto decrying Marxism, Liberalism, and multiculturalism -- classic whipping boys of the right wing in Europe and the US alike -- Brievik was not associated with any political movement. Despite the fact that Brievik identified himself as a member of a group of right wing extremists who called themselves "Knight Templars," he was, and still is, described as a "Lone Wolf" gunman. At no point were the former choirboy's actions associated with the Church of Norway, or with Christianity, in general. On the contrary, prosecutors refused to believe Brievik when he described attending a founding meeting of the Knights Templar in London in 2002. Though he insisted that he was not insane, and that he was a part of a larger network, prosecutor Inga Bejer Engh was incredulous, asking Brievik whether it was not "something you have made up." Brievik's was an "angelic" face, sculpted and molded by cosmetic surgery, not the face of a stone-cold killer. As much as Brievik wished to transcend his individuality, to become something greater than himself and to be identified with a political program, in the end, it was determined that he alone was responsible for his crimes. Certainly, this determination was convenient for those white, Christian, right wing, Norwegians who, like Brievik, disapproved of European multiculturalism.[20]

The international reaction to the Brievik massacre was predictable. Though he had been briefed on the details of the attack, and of the probability that the attack was not linked to any Islamic organization, US President Barack Obama nevertheless insinuated a connection to global jihadists in what Global Research correspondent Finian Cunningham succinctly described as an "odious bit of politicking to turn a horrific, tragic event into a propaganda stunt to stir up anti-Islamic fears and shore up Washington's illegal 'wars on terror.'"[21] Political leaders from all over the world offered their condolences and sympathy for the Norwegian people, although no one came to Oslo to march. When 40,000 Norwegians protested outside of Brievik's trial, singing "Children of the Rainbow," an anthem to multiculturalism, they were left to do so without the back-up vocals of Benjamin Netanyahu, David Cameron and Angela Merkel, right wing politicians who positioned themselves on the front line of Paris' "protest"/photo opportunity on January 11th.[22]

Right-wing personalities at Rupert Murdoch's Fox network, far from demanding apologies or condemnations from Norway's Christian community for producing a monster like Brievik, actually went as far as denying Brievik's Christian identity altogether. Bill O'Reilly dismissed the possibility that Brievik's religious sensibilities had prompted him to action, suggesting that "No one believing in Jesus commits mass murder...we can find no evidence, none, that this killer practiced Christianity in any way" and that "the left wants you to believe that fundamentalists Christians are a threat just like crazy jihadists are."[23] Obviously, O'Reilly had not had the opportunity to see the images of Brievik donned in his choir robes. Nor did O'Reilly demonstrate the sort of intellectual agility necessary to recognize that there is no shortage of mass murders committed in the name of Christ ranging from the 4,500 Saxons beheaded at the order of Charles the Great because they refused to convert to Christianity in 782 to the "Olympic Park Bomber," Eric Rudolph, who killed two people and wounded more than a hundred others between 1996 and 1998, all in service to his Christian beliefs.[24] The greatest irony in O'Reilly's position is, of course, that his argument that Brievik forfeited his Christian identity because of his violent actions is exactly the same argument that many Muslims make when attempting to distance themselves from Muslim terrorists.

Not once were there any calls for Christians to apologize for Breivik's rampage nor were there any serious demands for the far-right in Europe to share any responsibility. On the contrary, Europe's far-right politicians immediately distanced themselves from Breivik, despite the fact that his anti-Muslim, anti-Marxist, anti-multiculturalist positions directly mirrored their own positions. Netherlander Geert Wilders rejected any similarities between himself and his party and Breivik stating that Breivik's manifesto "filled him with revulsion." Marine Le Pen, leader of the French Front National dismissed Breivik as a "crazy man" but that view was not shared by everyone in her party, not even her father who blamed Breivik's massacre on Norwegian "naivete" regarding the dangers of mass immigration. Nick Griffin of the UK's British National Party referred to Breivik's killing spree as "evil terrorist actions" yet it is impossible to ignore the congruence in Breivik's rhetoric and that of his own party which routinely paints portraits of the " black or mixed race sodomite with multiple 'partners' fathering illegitimate children and championing 'politically correct' Leftist views" that are responsible for the "Marxist agenda in Britain" which is, apparently, "to deliberately destroy the indigenous status of the people and replace it with a multicultural and multiracial zoo" as well as the "Militant Muslims" agenda which allegedly aims to "turn Britain into an Islamic republic." [25] Breivik was not a member of a movement, according to Europe's neo-fascist leadership: he was an individual acting individually without any connection to the organized political parties that were willing to embrace his rhetoric even as they distanced themselves from his blood-letting.

Breivik committed his crimes alone, unlike the Kouachis, which allowed others to more easily frame his actions as the products of a single, disturbed, murderer rather than as a member of a larger movement. This view, however, is deeply flawed. The Kouachis were marginalized and relatively impoverished and, like all working class people, were more dependent on collective effort and organization in order to execute their agenda. However, Breivik was relatively affluent, amassing more than €250,000 to fund his operation, a sum that Chérif and Saïd Kouachi would have been unlikely to accrue, either individually or together. Breivik didn't need any help in order to carry out his murders but that doesn't mean that he was alone: a number of would-be copycats, sharing Breivik's xenophobic, Islamaphobic, views were foiled in their ambitions of recreating Utøya in their own communities.[26]

Vojtěch Mlýnek of the Czech Republic was arrested in August of 2012 by Czech police for stockpiling weapons and endangering the public. Police found automatic weapons, a bomb, a remote control detonator, hundreds of rounds of ammunition, police uniforms and balaclavas in Mlýnek's home in Ostrava. Mlýnek had previous convictions for crimes related to handling explosives, including one for attempting to detonate an explosive device at a gas station. Unlike Breivik, Mlýnek was found insane.[27]

In the United Kingdom, a man from South Shields, South Tyneside named Kenny Holden was arrested for making terroristic threats. On Facebook, Holden claimed to have a "pipe bomb just 4 Ocean Road," an area of his town populated by people of Asian descent. Additionally, Holden referred to Breivik's killing spree directly, writing in broken English, "GOD WILL SORT U ALL OUT U INBREAD MUSLIM FUCKAS GIVE ME A GUN AN AL DO YOU ALL OSLO STYLE! FACTBANG BANG KABOOM FACT EDL NFS!" Predictably, the EDL (English Defense League, a neo-fascist street protest organization) attempted to distance themselves from Holden, a difficult task given the pictures of Holden and EDL leader Tommy Robinson holding one another, arm in arm as well as others of Holden attending EDL rallies and posing in front of St. George's Cross flags adorned with lettering proclaiming "EDL South Shield's Division." [28]

In Poland, Brunon Kwiecień was arrested by Polish authorities in November of 2012 for planning an attack inspired by Breivik (and Oklahoma City bomber, right wing Christian, Timothy McVeigh). Kwiecień, a professor of chemistry in Krakow, was found in possessions of weapons purchased in Belgium and with explosive materials. Police moved on Kwiecień after being alerted to his plans by his wife, a biologist, who became suspicious of his intentions when he asked her how to construct a "dirty bomb" utilizing biological agents.[29]

At the National Prayer Breakfast on Thursday, February 5, 2015, US President Barack Obama called upon people of all faiths to reject religious violence. Obama advocated tolerance, understanding and respect, observing that lest "we get on our high horse and think this is unique to some other place, remember, during the Crusades and the Inquisition, people committed terrible deeds in the name of Christ," and that in the US "slavery and Jim Crow all too often [were] justified in the name of Christ." Predictably, American conservatives collapsed in self-effacing rage and incoherent anger. World War II Japanese internment apologist, Michelle Malkin, responded by suggesting that Obama was attempting to blame ISIS atrocities on the Crusades. Fox commentator Todd Starnes suggested that Obama should pay more attention to "the Islamic jihad being waged in this century." Former Virginia governor, Jim Gilmore, branded Obama's comments "the most offensive I've ever heard a president make in my lifetime" and went on to suggest that the president had "offended every believing Christian in the United States" and that these comments were proof that "Mr. Obama does not believe in America or the values we all share," apparently oblivious to the fact that there are, in fact, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, Voodooistas, Rastafarians, Satanists, Pastafarians, followers of indigenous religions, athiests, agnostics, and deists who hold American citizenship, and contribute to the American cultural fabric, as well. [30]

If Obama was at fault in his commentary on February 5, it was that he conveniently ignored the contemporary examples of Anders Behring Breivik, and his would-be copycat killers who were prevented from adding to the running death toll of Christian extremists. Indeed, the fact that Obama chose to avoid invoking the specter of Utøya and the 77 people massacred there by a sane, white, male, self-identifying Christian suggests that he was attempting to avoid the sort of controversy that his comments ultimately produced anyway. Michelle Malkin, a graduate of Oberlin, is craven and servile to right wing interests, but she is not stupid nor is she ignorant: her commentary was hatched from a desire to provide red meat for her right wing fan base. The same could be said for Todd Starnes, an employee of Rupert Murdoch's Fox network, the propaganda wing of an American Republican Party that has lazily drifted along into the dark forest of theocratic, corporatist, authoritarianism.

There is a danger in Obama's avoidance that is just as perilous as Malkin and Starnes' pandering and Gilmore's hyperbole. That danger is the normalization extremism. It is the same danger inherent to the firebrand sermons of Abu Hamza al-Masri, who was sentenced to life imprisonment for inspiring a 1998 kidnapping that killed four tourists in Yemen. It is the same danger that the Obama administration recognized in Anwar Al-Awlaki, the imam assassinated at the order of Barack Obama, and not for any crime that he had committed but because of the content of his sermons. It is curious that when Al-Awlaki advocated violence, it was enough for the Obama administration to make the choice to have him killed, an American citizen (al-Awlaki was born in Las Cruces, New Mexico), without any benefit of due process yet when Malkin offers her full-throated defense of racial profiling and unjustified (and unjustifiable) internment of American citizens, she is rewarded with a media platform to advance her ideas. There is a danger in such grotesque double standards and that is the danger of a society, and a political culture, where justice has no meaning and where extremism is only condemned when it is not in service to the state.



Notes



[1] Scott Bronstein, "Terror suspect Cherif Kouachi: 'I was ready to go and die in battle'," CNN.com, January 10, 2015, http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/09/europe/cherif-kouachi-court-documents/ (accessed February 1, 2015); Maya Vidon and Doug Stanglin, "Cornered French suspects vow to die as martyrs," USAToday.com, January 9, 2015, http://www.wusa9.com/story/news/nation/2015/01/09/report-hostages-taken-northeast-of-paris/21487097/, (accessed February 1, 2015).

[2] "French journalist expelled from north Mali," Yahoo.com, April 25, 2013, http://news.yahoo.com/french-journalist-expelled-north-mali-131118507.html (accessed February 1, 2015).

[3] "Pussy Riot whipped at Sochi Games by Cossacks," BBC News (online), February 19, 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-26265230 (accessed February 1, 2015).

[4] David Garner, "Saudi newspaper columnist could face death penalty after he insulted Prophet Muhammad on Twitter," Daily Mail Online, February 12, 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2100131/Saudi-newspaper-columnist-face-death-penalty-insulted-Prophet-Muhammad-Twitter.html (accessed February 1, 2015); Memri, "Enforcement Of Shari'a Law In The Muslim World for Insulting Islam, Prophet Muhammad," Coptic Solidarity, January 14, 2015, http://www.copticsolidarity.org/media-news-events/news/3264-enforcement-of-shari-a-law-in-the-muslim-world-for-insulting-islam-prophet-muhammad (accessed February 1, 2015); Michael Pearson, "Saudi Arabian rights activist reportedly flogged despite international outcry," CNN.com, January 13, 2015, http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/12/middleeast/saudi-arabia-activist-flogging/ (accessed February 1, 2015); "Russian President, Saudi Spy Chief Discussed Syria, Egypt," Al-Monitor (online), August 22, 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/politics/2013/08/saudi-russia-putin-bandar-meeting-syria-egypt.html#ixzz2d5UVLSNv (accessed February 1, 2015).

[5] Ingrid Melander, Sybille de la Hamaide and Julien Ponthus, "French, foreign leaders walk arm-in-arm as millions protest Paris attacks," Reuters (online), January 11, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/01/11/us-france-shooting-idUSKBN0KK05S20150111 (accessed February 1, 2015).

[6] Adam Withnall, "Paris march: TV wide shots reveal a different perspective on world leaders at largest demonstration in France's history," The Independent (online), January 12, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/paris-march-tv-wide-shots-reveal-a-different-perspective-on-world-leaders-at-largest-demonstration-in-frances-history-9972895.html (accessed February 1, 2015); Ryan Barell, "Paris March 'Photo Op' Leads To Criticism Of World Leaders' Support For Charlie Hebdo Tribute," Huffington Post UK (online), January 12, 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2015/01/12/merkel-cameron-hollande-paris_n_6454940.html (accessed February 1, 2015).

[7] Heather Saul, "Rupert Murdoch claims Muslims must 'recognise and destroy growing jihadist cancer' or 'be held responsible'," The Independent (online), January 10, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/charlie-hebdo-attacks-rupert-murdoch-claims-muslims-must-recognise-and-destroy-growing-jihadist-cancer-or-be-held-responsible-9969714.html (accessed February 1, 2015); "Rupert Murdoch tries to clarify Charlie Hebdo attack comments," The Guardian (online), January 14, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jan/14/rupert-murdoch-twitter-comments-muslims-charlie-hebdo (accessed February 1, 2015).

[8] Lloyd Grove, "Bill Maher: Hundreds of Millions of Muslims Support Attack on 'Charlie Hebdo'," The Daily Beast, January 8, 2015, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2015/01/08/bill-maher-hundreds-of-millions-of-muslims-support-attack-on-charlie-hebdo.html (accessed February 1, 2015); Erin Whitney, "Bill Maher Slams Islam Again in Wake of Charlie Hebdo Attack," The Huffington Post, January 10, 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/10/bill-maher-islam-charlie-hebdo_n_6449186.html (accessed February 1, 2015).

[9] Carol M. Swain, "Charlie Hebdo attacks prove critics were right about Islam," The Tennessean, January 15, 2015, http://www.tennessean.com/story/opinion/contributors/2015/01/15/charlie-hebdo-attacks-prove-critics-right-islam/21809599/ (accessed February 2, 2015).

[10] Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "How to Answer the Paris Terror Attack," The Wall Street Journal (online), January 7, 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/ayaan-hirsi-ali-how-to-answer-the-paris-terror-attack-1420672114 (accessed February 2, 2015).

[11] Dalil Boubakeur, "Condamnation de l' Attentat Contre Charlie Hebdo," Grande Mosquée du Paris, January 7, 2015, http://www.mosqueedeparis.net/condamnation-de-lattentat-contre-charlie-hebdo/ (accessed February 2, 2015). My translation: "The Islamic Council of France, and all the Muslim people of France, condemn with the greatest determination the exceptionally violent terrorist attacks committed against the journal Charlie Hebdo."

[12] "Horrible attaque au siège de Charlie Hebdo," Union des Organisations Islamiques de France, January 7, 2015, http://www.uoif-online.com/communiques/horrible-attaque-au-siege-charlie-hebdo/ (accessed February 2, 2015). My translation: "Charlie Hebdo came to be the object of an appalling attack. In total, there are eleven dead and four gravely injured. The UOIF condemns in the most forceful manner this criminal attack and these horrible murders."

[13] "Paris Murders are a Greater Insult to Islam: Muslim Council of Britain Statement on Charlie Hebdo Massacre," The Muslim Council of Britain, January 8, 2015, http://www.mcb.org.uk/paris-murders-jan-08-15/ (accessed February 2, 2015).

[14] "U.S. Muslims Condemn Paris Terror Attack, Defend Free Speech," Council on American-Islamic Relations, January 7, 2015, http://www.cair.com/press-center/press-releases/12797-american-muslims-condemn-paris-terror-attack-defend-free-speech.html (accessed February 2, 2015).

[15] "Arab League, Al-Azhar condemn Paris shooting attack," Al-Arabiya (online), January 7, 2015, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/world/2015/01/07/World-leaders-condemn-Paris-shooting-attack-.html (accessed February 2, 2015).

[16] "Islam in Paris," Euro-Islam.info, http://www.euro-islam.info/country-profiles/city-profiles/paris/ (accessed February 2, 2015); Angelique Chrisafis, "Charlie Hebdo attackers: born, raised and radicalised in Paris," The Guardian (online), January 12, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/12/-sp-charlie-hebdo-attackers-kids-france-radicalised-paris (accessed February 2, 2015); Celine Rastello, "'Charlie Hebdo' : Chérif Kouachi, l'ex-livreur de pizzas devenu suspect n°1," L'Obs, January 9, 2015, http://tempsreel.nouvelobs.com/charlie-hebdo/20150108.OBS9574/charlie-hebdo-cherif-kouachi-l-ex-livreur-de-pizzas-devenu-suspect-n-1.html (accessed February 2, 2015). My translation: "the lost children of the Republic."

[17] Raf Sanchez, "Norway killer: Anders Behring Breivik was a 'mummy's boy," The Telegraph (online), July 25, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/8659746/Norway-killer-Anders-Behring-Breivik-was-a-mummys-boy.html (accessed February 4, 2015).

[18] "Oslo: Bomb blast near Norway prime minister's office," BBC News (online), July 22, 2015, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14252515 (accessed February 4, 2015); "Oslo Norway Bombing: Suspect Anders Behring Breivik Bought Tons Of Fertilizer, Wrote Manifesto," Huffington Post, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/23/oslo-bombing-anders-behring-brelvik-norwegian-suspect-fertilizer_n_907697.html (accessed February 4, 2015).

[19] "Survivors In Norway Describe Scenes Of Terror," NPR (online), July 23, 2011, http://www.npr.org/2011/07/23/138634243/norway-rescuers-search-waters-after-island-attack (accessed February 4, 2015); "Anders Behring Breivik: the indictment," The Guardian (online), April 16, 2012, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/apr/16/anders-behring-breivik-indictment (accessed February 4, 2015).

[20] "Anders Breivik questioned about 'Knights Templar' group," The Independent (online), April 18, 2012, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/anders-breivik-questioned-about-knights-templar-group-7657101.html (accessed February 4, 2015); "The young assassin: Angelic face of boy who grew up to commit one of the worst single-handed massacres in history," The Daily Mail (online), July 27, 2011, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2018974/Anders-Behring-Breivik-photos-Angelic-boy-grew-commit-Norway-shootings.html (accessed February 4, 2015). See also "Anders Behring Breivik's Complete Manifesto '2083 - A European Declaration of Independence'," public intelligence, July 28, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/r/2010-2019/WashingtonPost/2011/07/24/National-Politics/Graphics/2083+-+A+European+Declaration+of+Independence.pdf (accessed February 4, 2015).

[21] Finian Cunningham, "BREAKING NEWS: Obama Reaction To Norway Massacre Betrays US "War on Terror" Fundamentalism," Global Research.ca, July 23, 2011, http://www.globalresearch.ca/breaking-news-obama-reaction-to-norway-massacre-betrays-us-war-on-terror-fundamentalism/25752 (accessed February 4, 2015).

[22] "Norway attacks: World reaction to bombing and shooting," BBC News (online), July 22, 2015, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14257797 (accessed February 4, 2015).

[23] "Bill O'Reilly: Media Labeling Norway Killer Breivik 'Christian' Because 'They Don't Like Christians' (VIDEO)," Huffington Post, July 26, 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/26/bill-oreilly-media-breivik-christian_n_909498.html (accessed February, 4, 2015).

[24] David Nicolle, The Conquest of Saxony AD 782-785: Charlemagne's defeat of Widukind of Westphalia (Oxford: Osprey, 2014), 61-64. See also Alessandro Barbero, Charlemagne: Father of a Continent (Oakland: University of California Press, 2004). See Maryanne Vollers, Lone Wolf: Eric Rudolph: Murder, Myth, and the Pursuit of an American Outlaw, (New York: Harper-Collins, 2006)

[25] "Geert Wilders 'repulsed by Breivik'," Radio Netherlands Worldwide (online), July 26, 2011, http://www.rnw.org/archive/geert-wilders-repulsed-breivik (accessed February 8, 2015); John Lichfield, "Marine Le Pen urged to rebuke father over Oslo massacre stance," The Independent (online), August 1, 2011, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/marine-le-pen-urged-to-rebuke-father-over-oslo-massacre-stance-2329632.html (accessed February 8, 2015); "A personal response to 'Keith Allen meets Nick Griffin'," British National Party (online), no date, http://m.bnp.org.uk/news/national/personal-response-keith-allen-meets-nick-griffin (accessed February 8, 2015).

[26] Scott Stewart, "Norway: Lessons from a Successful Lone Wolf Attacker," Stratfor Global Intelligence (online), July 28, 2011, https://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20110727-norway-lessons-successful-lone-wolf-attacker (accessed February 8, 2015).

[27] Tony Paterson, "Breivik 'supporter' accused of plotting copycat attacks in Czech Republic," The Independent (online), August 20, 2012, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/breivik-supporter-accused-of-plotting-copycat-attacks-in-czech-republic-8061623.html (accessed February 8, 2015); Nicholas Edmondson, "Anders Behring Breivik 'Sympathiser' Charged with Planning Copycat Attacks in Czech Republic," International Business Times (online), August 20, 2012, http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/anders-breivik-copycat-suspect-sympathiser-ostrava-375387 (accessed February 8, 2015); Darek Štalmach, "Na výbušninách ujíždí, ale terorista není, míní známí „českého Breivika," Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech, online), August 20, 2012, http://ostrava.idnes.cz/policie-chytila-ceskeho-breivika-vojtech-mlynek-fuf-/ostrava-zpravy.aspx?c=A120820_1818813_ostrava-zpravy_sot (accessed February 8, 2015).

[28] Gary Fiennes-Hastings, "EDL Member arrested after Breivik bomb threat against Muslims," EDL News, April 21, 2012, http://edlnews.co.uk/2012/04/21/edl-member-threatens-to-pipe-bomb-muslim-area-oslo-style/ (accessed February 8, 2015); "Ex-soldier in court over anti-Muslim Facebook rants," The Shields Gazette (online), September 26, 2012, http://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/crime/ex-soldier-in-court-over-anti-muslim-facebook-rants-1-4964205 (accessed February 8, 2015); "'Oslo-style' Facebook threat man given 12 month sentence," Engage, October 3, 2012, http://iengage.org.uk/news/2118-oslo-style-facebook-threat-man-given-12-month-sentence (accessed February 8, 2015).

[29] Jaroslaw Kałucki, Izabela Kacprzak, Marek Kozubal, "Chemist fascinated by Breivik," Rzeczpospolita (online), November 21, 2012, http://www.rp.pl/artykul/10,953875-Chemik-zafascynowany-Breivikiem.html (accessed February 8, 2015); Ben West, "Mimicking Breivik in Poland," Stratfor Global Intelligence (online), November 29, 2012, https://www.stratfor.com/weekly/mimicking-breivik-poland (accessed February 8, 2015).

[30] Antonia Blumberg, "President Obama: 'People Committed Terrible Deeds In The Name Of Christ'," The Huffington Post, February 5, 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/05/obama-crusades-christ-_n_6623962.html (accessed February 8, 2015); Colin Campbell, "Obama: 'People committed terrible deeds in the name of Christ'," Business Insider UK, February 5, 2015, http://uk.businessinsider.com/obama-people-committed-terrible-deeds-in-the-name-of-christ-2015-2#ixzz3RAoxwATy (accessed February 8, 2015); Todd Starnes, "Obama at Prayer Event: Christians did terrible things, too," FoxNews.com, February 5, 2015, http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2015/02/05/obama-at-prayer-event-christians-did-terrible-things-too/ (accessed February 8, 2015); Zachary Davies Boren, "Obama criticised for telling Christians to get off 'high horse' over Islamic extremism," The Independent (online) February 7, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/obama-criticised-for-telling-christians-to-get-off-high-horse-over-islamic-extremism-10030790.html (accessed February 8, 2015).